are mainly used to count mantras, which can be recited
for four different purposes:
by forceful means.
beads used to count mantras intended to appease should
be of crystal, pearl or mother of pearl, and should
at least be clear or white in colour. A rosary for this
purpose should have one hundred such beads. Mantras
counted on these beads serve to clear away obstacles,
such as illness and other calamities, and purify one
beads used with mantras intended to increase should
be of gold, silver, copper or lotus seeds and a string
of beads is made of 108 of them. The mantras counted
on these serve to increase life span, knowledge and
beads used with mantras, which are intended to overcome,
are made from a compound of ground sandal wood, saffron
and other fragrant substances. There are twenty-five
beads on this mala.
The mantras counted on them are meant to tame others,
but the motivation for doing so should be a pure wish
to help other sentient beings and not to benefit oneself.
beads used to recite mantras aiming at subduing beings
through forceful means should be made from raksha seeds
or human bones in a string of sixty. Again, as the purpose
should be absolutely altruistic, the only person capable
of performing such a feat is a Bodhisattva motivated
by great compassion for a being who can be tamed through
no other means, for example extremely malicious spirits,
or general afflictions, visualized as a dense black
made of Bodhi seed or wood can be used for many purposes,
for counting all kinds of mantras, as well as other
prayers, prostrations, circumambulations and so forth.
string common to all beads should consist of nine threads,
which symbolize Buddha Vajradhara and the eight Bodhisattvas.
The large bead at the end stands for the wisdom which
cognises emptiness and the cylindrical bead surmounting
it, emptiness itself, both symbolize having vanquished