A Review of the Literature
by Greg Bogart, Ph.D.
Originally published in The American Journal of Psychotherapy, 1991 © Greg Bogart, all rights reserved
Are meditation and psychotherapy compatible? While meditation leads to physiological, behavioral, and cognitive changes that may have potential therapeutic benefits, psychoanalytic and Jungian critics claim that meditation is regressive, fosters dissociation, and neglects the unconscious. In contrast, transpersonal theorists contend that, when used with attention to assessing the individual's developmental stage and choice of an appropriate method, meditation may promote inner calm, loving kindness toward oneself and others, access to previously unconscious material, transformative insight into emotional conflicts, and changes in the experience of personal identity.
Over the past two
decades there has been a growing interest in the potential use of meditative
practices in psychotherapy.2,3 This has given rise to a fertile dialogue
regarding the confluences and divergences of the traditions of contemplative
practice and Western psychotherapy.4-6 Questions have been raised about
whether these two methods of human growth are compatible. Might meditation
offer access to dimensions of human experience that are largely untouched
by Western therapy, and possibly augment or improve the effectiveness
of therapy? Does meditation lead to improvements or difficulties in psychological
adjustment? How significant are meditation's physiological and cognitive
effects? Is meditation fundamentally out of place in the clinical setting,
intended to precipitate entirely different kinds of changes in human behavior,
personality, and consciousness? Are there dangers in introducing meditation
into the therapeutic context? How might these dangers be avoided?
This review of some
of the research that has been done to date will focus upon the therapeutic
integration of meditative techniques. I will consider theories suggesting
that meditation leads to physiological, behavioral, and cognitive changes
that have potential therapeutic benefits, as well as suggesting ways in
which meditation is more than just a relaxation, behavioral, or cognitive
technique. I will then examine some of the problems raised by psychoanalytic
and Jungian critiques of meditation. Finally, I will explore the views
of several authors associated with the field of transpersonal psychology,
Jack Engler, Ken Wilber, Mark Epstein, and Elbert Russell, who have done
important work comparing Eastern psychologies (especially Buddhist) and
Western views of the self-the individual's conception of being a separate
and distinct person with a unique identity-in order to to illuminate how
psychotherapy and meditative disciplines might inform and assist one another.
There are many forms
of meditation that have been developed and passed on by humanity's religious
and spiritual traditions. Many involve some form of withdrawal of attention
from the outer world and from customary patterns of perceptual, cognitive,
emotional, and motor activity, performed in a state of inner and outer
stillness. There are, however, forms of meditation that utilize music,
movement, or visual or auditory contemplation of physical objects or processes
(i.e., staring at a candle flame, watching or listening to a stream of
water or ocean waves). Goleman7 divides meditation into two main categories:
concentration methods and insight techniques.
fixes the mind on a single object such as the breath or a mantra and attempts
to exclude all other thoughts from awareness. This kind of meditation
is prescribed in the Yoga Sutras8 and Buddhism9, and has been popularized
in the form of "Transcendental Meditation"(TM). Concentration
practices suppress ordinary mental functioning, restrict attention to
one point, and induce states of absorption characterized by tranquility
also introduced the practice of insight meditation (vipassana), the goal
of which is insight into the nature of psychic functioning, not the achievement
of states of absorption. Vipassana is a training in mindfulness in which
attention is focused upon registering feelings, thoughts, and sensations
exactly as they occur, without elaboration, preference, selection, comments,
censorship, judgment, or interpretation10 (p.21). It is a process of expanding
attention to as many mental and physical events as possible, the goal
of which is understanding of the impermanent, unsatisfactory, and non-substantial
nature of all phenomena. Thus, it is primarily a means of knowing one's
mental processes more clearly-for example, by understanding the chain
of "mind moments" that lead to suffering-and of learning to
shape and control them.
These two kinds of
meditation may have very different effects on the practitioner and thus
may have very different clinical applications. A comparison of two EEG
studies11,12 showed that yogis in meditation are oblivious to the external
world, while Zen meditators become keenly attuned to the environment.
Thus, different forms of meditation are associated with different patterns
of brain activity and different forms of attention. The distinctions between
various forms of meditation such as TM sand vipassana are significant
because they enable us to recognize that a meditation technique may appropriately
be applied in therapy only if it matches the therapeutic goals being sought,
for example, stress reduction, working through difficult emotions, or
seeking transformative transpersonal experiences.
Finally, in order to speak intelligibly about meditation we must not only make these distinctions between various kinds of meditation, but we must also note that different effects may be associated with different stages of meditative practice; i.e. long-term practitioners may experience different physiological, cognitive, and psychological states and changes than novices.
Why Use Meditation In Psychotherapy?
the effectiveness of meditation techniques as a primary or secondary technique
with a variety of psychiatric patients. He conceptualized meditation as
a self-treatment regimen (highly efficient for the use of the therapist's
time and therefore quite cost-effective) that helps patients know their
own mental processes and preoccupations, develop the "observer self,"
and gain the ability to shape or control their mental processes.
"Meditation and esoteric traditions have much to offer psychotherapy,"
and suggests that the efficacy of meditation in therapy is due to a combination
of relaxation, cognitive and attentional restructuring, self-observation,
and insight. Shapiro & Giber15 discuss two main hypotheses regarding
the mechanisms responsible for the therapeutic benefits of meditation:
first, the view that meditation brings about a state of relaxation; and
secondly, the view that meditation is effective by inducing an altered
state of consciousness.
Deikman16 argues that
Western psychology has much to learn from the traditions of mystical sciences,
which claim that central sources of human suffering originate in ignorance
of our true nature, and that achieving enlightenment, or the experience
of the "Real Self" alleviates human suffering by removing its
basis. Western therapy, he writes, focuses on emotions, thoughts, memories,
impulses, images, self-concepts, all of which are contents of consciousness.
But Western psychology fails to concern itself with the fact that our
core sense of personal existence-what Deikman calls "The observing
self"-is located in awareness itself, not in its contents. Thus awareness
remains beyond thought and images, memories, and feelings, and cannot
be observed, but must be experienced directly. Meditative techniques heighten
awareness of the observing self, change customary patterns of perception
and thinking(p.33), and change motivation, lessening the intensity of
motivations connected with the ego (the "object self"), leading
to reduction of symptoms (p.11).
In Deikman's view,
"Meditation is an adjunct to therapy, not a replacement for it"
(p.143). Therapy is most helpful for persons seeking relief from symptoms
interfering with work, intimacy and pleasure (p.174). Therapy ameliorates
neurotic self-centeredness, corrects misinterpretations of the world,
and teaches new strategies that are more effective in meeting a person's
needs. Western therapy focuses on fulfillment of personal desires, the
gratification of the object self (p.81). Mysticism questions and uproots
craving, and tries to bring about a change in psychological and emotional
state or attitude that leads to a diminishment of the problems that are
the focus of therapy (p.78). Vassallo17 concurs, writing that by illuminating
two basic human dilemmas-clinging and ignorance-Buddhist psychology and
meditative practices help people accept reality as it is and decreases
their individualistic preoccupation.
Kutz, Borysenko, and
Benson18 state that meditation may be a primer for therapy; for observing
and categorizing mental events provides insight into how mental schemes
are created, giving rise to a greater sense of responsibility and allowing
one to step out of conceptual limitations and stereotyped reactions and
behaviors. Meditation thus spurs the desire for deeper self-understanding
through therapy, and actually leads, in their view, to an intensification
of the therapeutic process. Meditation is a form of introspection pursued
outside of the therapeutic session, for which patients pay with their
own time, not the therapist's time. Thus meditation enhances the quality
of therapy by involving patients more deeply in the process of self-exploration
and providing abundant material for exploration in therapy sessions. Moreover,
therapy and meditation both assume that understanding one's pain and defenses
against it can alleviate suffering and promote psychological growth. They
argue that combining meditation and therapy is "technically compatible
and mutually reinforcing."
and Iny19 disagreed with these conclusions, writing that the goal of meditation
(the realization that the self or ego is illusory) is irreconcilable with
the therapeutic goal of facilitating development of a cohesive ego. Corton20
cautioned that before combining therapy and meditation, the developmental
levels of patients must be carefully considered. Wolman21 argues that
the combination of meditation and therapy is redundant. In contrast, however,
Dubs's study22-which used interviews and questionnaire assessments of
30 long-term meditators and identified unresolved anger as a key element
in resistance to progress in meditation-suggests that psychological and
spiritual growth are linked, perhaps sequentially and developmentally.
that a sequential approach in which psychotherapy precedes meditation
is more beneficial than a blended approach. It is important, in his view,
to respect the developmental tasks of the person emphasized by existential-humanistic
therapy; self identification, emotional contact and expression, ego development,
and increase in self-esteem are all necessary before the individual can
undertake in a serious way the tasks of meditation: the disidentification
from emotional and egoic concerns. Although meditation and therapy perform
corollary functions in the enhancement of individual well-being-the intensification
of present awareness and lifting of repression-there are major philosophical
differences that make separation advisable. Bacher notes that keeping
a clear distinction between them maintains the full integrity and power
of each to accomplish its stated aims. Meditation teaches the skills of
attention and a still mind, a state of inner harmony and a transformation
and transcendence of the personal concerns that are the focus of psychotherapy.
Vaughan24 lists the
following components common to both therapy and meditation: Telling the
truth; releasing negative emotions; the need for effort and consistency;
authenticity and trust-avoiding self-deception; integrity and wholeness-accepting
all one's experiences and allowing things to be as they are, rather than
living in a world of illusion and denial; insight and forgiveness directed
toward oneself and others; opening the heart and developing the capacity
to give and receive love; awareness and nonjudgmental attention; liberation
from limiting self-concepts, from fear and delusion, and from the past
and early conditioning.
Kornfield25, a noted
psychologist and Buddhist meditation teacher, contends that Western therapy
emphasizes analysis, investigation and the adjustment of the personality.
Yet it neglects the development of concentration, tranquility, and equanimity,
"the cutting power of samadhi, the stillness of the mind in meditation"
that can "penetrate the surface of the mind" and "empower
the awareness to cut neurotic speed" (p.37). Meditation, in his view,
is a means not merely of seeking comfort and stability, but of working
with inner turmoil and undergoing a profound transformation that represents
the death of the self that is the main focus of attention in psychotherapy.
However Kornfield26 also emphasizes that "meditation doesn't do it
all." In many areas, he writes, such as grief, communication skills,
maturation of relationships, sexuality and intimacy, career and work issues,
fears and phobias, and early wounds, Western therapy is quicker and more
succesful than meditation.
that meditation teaches a focused attention that leads to increased self-awareness
of mental and emotional states, mastery over instinctive, compulsive reactions,
insight into one's true nature and into reality, exploration of religious
themes, images, and feelings, and expansion of ego consciousness into
a more universal consciousness.
Brooks and Scarano28
studied the effectiveness of Transcendental Meditation in the treatment
of post-Vietnam adjustment, concluding that it is a useful treatment modality.
After three months of meditation, treatment subjects showed significant
reductions in depression, anxiety, emotional numbness, alcohol consumption,
family problems, difficulty in finding a job, insomnia, and other symptoms
of posttraumatic stress disorder. Therapy subjects in the same study showed
no significant improvement on any measure.
Much of the physiological
data on meditation suggests its effectiveness for treating a variety of
stress-related, somatically based problems. Many studies have suggested
that meditation could be a promising preventive or rehabilitative strategy
in treatment of addictions, hypertension, fears, phobias, asthma, insomnia,
and stress. Research has also suggested that subjects using meditation
change more than control groups in the direction of positive mental health,
positive personality change, self-actualization, increased spontaneity
self-regard and inner directedness and self-perceived increase in the
capacity for intimate contact.29-31 Delmonte32 discussed the relationship
between meditation and personality scores, focusing on self-esteem and
self-concept, depression, psychosomatic symptomatology, self-actualization,
locus of control, and introversion/extroversion. He found no compelling
evidence that meditation changes psychometric scores, but found that meditation
does seem to be associated with increases in self-actualization and decreases
Childs33 found that
use of TM with juvenile offenders was associated with self-actualization,
decreased anxiety and drug use, and improvements in behavior and interpersonal
relationships. Dice34 noted that TM promoted improvement of self-concept
and internal locus of control. Lesh35 has shown that meditation may increase
therapists' accurate empathy and openness to their own inner experience.
And Keefe36 believes that meditation leads to greater awareness of feelings,
enhanced interpersonal perception, and increased present-centeredness,
thereby strengthening therapists' effectiveness. Goleman37 contends that
meditation is applicable as a means of deconditioning in cases of general
or diffuse anxiety but not in treatment of specific fears. In his view,
responses of meditators to stressful situations may be more adaptive,
due to the increased ability to let go of stress rather than remain chronically
stressed or anxious after the stressful situation has passed.7
However, the view that meditation leads to anxiety reduction is a point of contention for some. Many of the findings cited above have been contested on methodological grounds by Smith.2 Boswell & Murray38 contend that
of blood lactate, blood flow, hormone levels, plasma phenylalanine, and
neurotransmitter metabolites-concluded that there is no compelling evidence
that meditation is associated with special state or trait effects at a
Many of the clinical
benefits claimed for meditation are attributed to the physiological state
of relaxation associated with meditation. Studies have found that meditation
leads to significant decreases in oxygen consumption, carbon dioxide elimination,
respiration rate, cardiac output, heart rate, arterial lactate concentration,
respiratory quotient, blood pressure, arterial gases, and body temperature.40-50
Meditation is also associated with increases in skin resistance and in
slow alpha brain waves and a decrease of beta waves.40 All of these physiological
correlates of meditation yield a portrait of a condition of relaxed wakefulness.
This has given rise to the view that meditation is basically a relaxation
technique, one which allows a calm witnessing of thoughts and reduces
somatic symptoms, fears, and phobias through desensitization and reduction
The relaxation model
of meditation's therapeutic effectiveness is usually associated with the
theory of reciprocal inhibition. Wolpe51 hypothesized that a phobic reaction
would extinguish if it could symbolically occur in the presence of an
incompatible response, such as relaxation. This is the foundation of modern
behavioral self-control strategies, which will be compared with meditation
Reciprocal Inhibition Model
Goleman's7 study of Buddhist Abhidharma psychology and meditation identified the principle of reciprocal inhibition as central to the efficacy of meditation. Abhidharma teachings describe the flow of "mind moments," the constant flux of mental states. Mental states are said to be composed of a set of properties of mental factors, which are differentiated into pure, wholesome, healthy factors, and impure, unwholesome, and unhealthy mental properties. Delusion-perceptual cloudiness or misperception of objects-is the primary unhealthy factor, which gives rise to the unhealthy cognitive factors of perplexity, shamelessness, remorselessness, and to the unhealthy affective factors of agitation, worry, contraction, torpor, greed, avarice, envy, and aversion. These are counteracted by the factors present in healthy states, which are seen as antagonistic to unhealthy states. The most important of these are mindfulness and insight (clear perception of the object as it really is), which suppress the fundamental unhealthy factor of delusion. These lead to the development of modesty, discretion, rectitude, confidence, nonattachment, nonaversion, impartiality, composure, buoyancy, pliancy, efficiency, proficiency, compassion, loving-kindness, and altruistic joy. According to Goleman, "The key principle in the Abhidharma program for achieving mental health is the reciprocal inhibition of unhealthy mental factors by healthy ones."
While Goleman's summary of the Abdhidharma perspective is quite illuminating, the theory of reciprocal inhibition upon which it is based is not immune to criticism. Shapiro & Giber15 raise questions regarding the reciprocal inhibition explanation of systematic desensitization of anxiety, saying that this effect may also be due to attention shifts and cognitive refocusing.52,53 Boals54 writes that the reciprocal inhibition theory ignores some of the complexities of the relationship between anxiety and performance, for example the fact that insufficient levels of arousal may detract from optimal performance as much as excessive anxiety does. Moreover, the hypothesis that meditation leads to global desensitization of anxiety associated with an individual's thoughts37 may be unfounded; the relaxation provided by meditation may not be sufficient to achieve desensitization to negative or disturbing thoughts and images that may emerge in the course of meditation.
Furthermore, according to Boals, meditation may not reduce the anxiety associated with symptoms like drug use by substituting relaxation for it; instead it may work by substituting an alternative way by which people can reach an altered state of consciousness (ASC). Thus, while meditation may be associated with a decrease in the use of drugs or alcohol, for example, anxiety reduction may not be the best explanation for this reduction. There is some evidence suggesting that people may ingest substances not to reduce anxiety but to produce an ASC that is positively reinforcing.
Klajner, Hartman, and Sobell55 write that previous research on the use of relaxation methods (such as meditation) for treatment of drug and alcohol abuse have been premised upon the assumption that substance use is causally linked to anxiety and that anxiety can be reduced by relaxation training. However, evidence suggests that such precipitating anxiety is limited to interpersonal stress situations involving diminished perceived personal control over the stressor, and that alcohol and other drugs are often consumed for their euphoric rather than tranquilizing effects. Thus, empirical support for the efficacy of relaxation training or meditation as a treatment for substance abuse is equivocal. Even in cases of demonstrated effectiveness, they write, increased perceived control is a more plausible explanation than decreased anxiety.
Critiques of the Relaxation Model
In addition to these
important questions regarding anxiety-reduction and reciprocal inhibition,
there are a number of other reasons to reconsider the view of meditation
as primarily a relaxation, anxiety-reducing strategy. Boals54 writes that
the relaxation model of meditation has allowed meditation to become more
familiar, acceptable, and accessible to the scientific community and to
the public at large, and has led to fruitful study of the uses of meditation
in a variety of settings. Nevertheless, this view of meditation may have
outlived its usefulness. The relaxation model does not provide us with
an adequate understanding of the negative consequences sometimes associated
with meditation, which can only be explained as symptoms of unstressing
(the organism's attempt to normalize itself by eliminating old stresses),
a resistance to relaxation, or an eruption of depression that is ordinarily
masked by activity.
Furthermore, the relaxation model leads some to believe that meditation is no different from other relaxation techniques.56-59 Benson57, for example, has postulated that meditation, Zen, Yoga, and relaxation techniques-such as autogenic training, hypnosis, progressive relaxation as well as and certain forms of prayer-elicit a uniform "relaxation response," which only requires a quiet environment, a mental device for focusing attention, a passive solitude, and a comfortable position. Delmonte60 would seem to confirm this finding, showing that both mantra meditation and hypnosis involve focused and selective attention, reduced exteroceptive and proprioceptive sensory input, passive volition, a receptive attitude, a relaxed posture, and monotonous, rhythmic vocal or subvocal repetition. Both states involve increased drowsiness, a shift toward right brain hemisphere activity and parasympathetic nervous system dominance, increased hypnogogic reverie, regressive mentation, and suggestibility. Both are altered states of consciousness that have in common similar induction procedures, and many state effects.
While the view of a unitary relaxation phenomenon demystifies meditation, Boals writes, it is inaccurate for a number of important reasons. First, although Benson postulates the relaxation response as a unitary phenomenon, it is difficult to define relaxation precisely. Sleep and TM, for example, are both relaxing, yet they are associated with very different states of consciousness.40,61,62 Moreover, many activities that are considered relaxing are quite active and involve states of physiological arousal. Second, some meditation techniques produce different effects on different subjects or in the same subject on different occasions.63-66 Third, the relaxation model tells us nothing about the process of meditation as it is subjectively experienced. Fourth, there are quantitative and qualitative differences between various relaxation techniques. I will return below to this point, which is important because failure to distinguish between various methods obfuscates the potential uses of different techniques in alleviating particular kinds of human suffering.
Fifth, as noted earlier,
meditation is not a unitary phenomenon: different types of meditation
produce widely varying outcomes. For example, Zen meditators grappling
with a koan or vipassana meditators confronting the naked truth of mental
processes may become at least temporarily quite anxious or agitated. Similarly,
meditation in the tradition of kundalini yoga67 may bring about spontaneous
motor activity, emotional release, or other forms of psychophysiological
arousal. Thus, some forms of meditation do not result in states of relaxation.
Sixth, the mechanisms
used to explain the relaxation response may not be valid. For example,
rhythm is said to be a central factor used to induce states of meditation;
yet some rhythms are arousing rather than relaxing, and many meditation
methods do not use rhythm at all (e.g., staring at a candle flame). For
all of these reasons, we must conclude that although there is some evidence
that meditation does lead to a state of relaxation and does seem to be
associated with a reduction of anxiety, the relaxation model is not by
itself an adequate explanation of the therapeutic efficacy of meditation.
From A Cognitive Perspective
Boals54 and Deikman16
prefer a cognitive explanation of meditation, viewing it as a process
of deliberately altering attention, involving a change of focus from the
external world to the inner world, from stimulus variety to stimulus uniformity,
from the active mode of consciousness-characterized by focal attention,
control, task orientation, manipulation of the environment-to the receptive
mode-characterized by diffuse attention and letting go. Goleman7 also
characterizes meditation as the "self-regulation and retraining of
attentional habits," through deliberate deconditioning of habitual
patterns patterns of perception, cognition, and response.
The cognitive changes
resulting from meditation can perhaps best be understood using Deikman's68
concept of the "deautomatization" of consciousness, brought
about by "reinvesting actions and percepts with attention."
Deautomatization implies a shift toward a form of perceptual and cognitive
organization which some people might consider primitive because it is
one preceding the analytic, abstract, intellectual mode. However this
mode of perceptual organization could also be viewed as more vivid, sensuous,
syncretic, animated, and dedifferentiated with respect to distinctions
between self and object, between objects, and between sense modalities.
Deikman69 calls deautomatization a process of "cutting away false
cognitive certainties," leading to mystical experiences and unusual
modes of perception. Many experiences of altered or mystical states, he
believes, can be understood in terms of "perceptual expansion,"
the "awareness of new dimensions of the total stimulus array,"
through which aspects of reality previously unavailable enter awareness.
Such experiences are "trans-sensate phenomena," experiences
that go beyond customary pathways, ideas, and memories, and "are
the result of the operation of a new perceptual capacity responsive to
dimensions of the stimulus array previously ignored or blocked from awareness."
According to Goleman7,
meditation induces the experience of flow characteristic of all intrinsically
rewarding activities.70,71 The flow experience is characterized by (a)
the merging of action and awareness in sustained, non-distractible concentration
on the task at hand, (b) the focusing of attention on a limited stimulus
field, excluding intruding stimuli from awareness in a pure inwardness
devoid of concern with outcome, (c) self-forgetfulness with heightened
awareness of function and body states, (d) skills adequate to meet the
environmental demand, (e) clarity regarding situational cues and appropriate
response. Flow arises when there is optimal fit between one's capability
and the demands of the moment.7
a change in internal state that maximizes the possibility for flow experiences
while lessening the need to control the environment. Meditation thus leads
to "perceptual sharpening and increased ability to attend to a target
environmental stimulus while ignoring irrelevant stimuli." Flow is
associated with a sense of the intrinsic rewards of activity and an absence
of anxiety and boredom. The flow state that may result from meditation
is associated with clarity of perception, alertness, equanimity, pliancy,
efficiency, skill in action, and pleasure in action for its own sake.
Another useful cognitive
model is found in Delmonte's72 constructivist approach to meditation based
on George Kelly's73 Personal Construct Theory (PCT). According to Kelly,
there are two fundamental realities, the reality beyond human perception
(similar to Kant's "noumenon"), and our interpretations or constructions
of this primary reality (Kant's "phenomenon"), which are constantly
updated in the light of new evidence. Both PCT and Eastern psychologies
such as Buddhism agree that normal human understanding involves use of
dualistic constructions to make sense of a unitary reality. Buddhism emphasizes
the need to see through the illusion of duality through meditation, to
recognize the transparency of our construct system, and to experience
a greater sense of unity; whereas PCT emphasizes the practical value of
dualistic construing and the importance of elaborating ever more effective
personal construct systems to more accurately predict events.
two main "cognitive sets," Delmonte writes, constriction and
dilation. In constriction, attention acts to exclude or curtail construing
by reducing the number of elements to be dealt with to a minimum. Dilation
uses suspension of habitual construing while broadening the perceptual
field to include more elements, using a more comprehensive organization
of the construct system. Thus, in mindfulness meditation one observes
the contents of consciousness in a neutral fashion while suspending habitual
construing. The stimulus repetition of meditation leads to a condition
of "no thought" due to stimulus habituation and inhibition of
the construct system. As habitual construing is temporarily blocked, spatial
and temporal distortions of awareness may result, or a regression to a
preverbal form of sense-making (e.g. sexual arousal, hate, fear, love,
anger, changed body size). Delmonte notes that meditation often brings
about modification of brain hemispheric laterality, such that advanced
stages of meditation inhibit or transcend the functions associated with
both left and right hemispheres, a finding that is at odds with those
who view meditation as primarily a relaxation response associated with
increases in right-hemisphere functioning.
According to Delmonte,
the suspension of habitual, logical-verbal construing in meditation frees
us of our usual defensive constructions, allowing consciousness to move
in new directions. Here Delmonte makes a crucial differentiation between
"ascendence," a movement up to a higher, more abstract level
within one's personal construct system; "descendence," in which
awareness moves down from cognitive to preverbal or somatic construal,
an adaptive regression to unconscious levels of awareness in which repressed
emotional material can come into consciousness and be cathartically released;
and "transcendence," in which one experiences no thought, the
feeling of unity or bliss, in which the meditator transcends the bipolarity
of contrual and thereby recovers the preverbal awareness of the essential
unity of reality.
Thus, Delmonte's model
suggests that the process of attentional retraining involved in meditation
can be beneficial in three distinctive ways: It can be applied in a pragmatic
way to change human behavior by augmenting and improving our personal
construct systems (ascendence); to facilitate the accessing of unconscious
material, previously inaccesible from within our construct system (descendence);
and to bring about altered states of consciousness in which one experiences,
at least temporarily, the free space of reality beyond and prior to our
construct systems. Let us examine how meditation could be utilized therapeutically
in each of these ways.
and Behavioral Self-management Techniques
training, meditation brings about a shift toward self-observation and
thus may be useful for facilitating behavioral changes.54,74 Herein may
lie one of meditation's most important forms of clinical utility. Deikman16
writes that the increase in scope and clarity of the observing self which
meditation encourages leads directly to freedom from habitual patterns
of perception and response (p.98). As the motivations of the object self
subside and cease to dominate perception and as the observing self is
extracted from the contents of consciousness, one begins to disidentify
with automatic sequences of thought, emotion, and fantasy (p.107). The
observing self redirects the intensity of affect, obsessive thinking,automatic
response patterns, and thus provides the opportunity for modification,
mastery, and control of behavior.
Goleman7 has noted
that therapy is treatment for specific symptoms, while meditation is not.
Biofeedback or behavioral therapy may be more effective for self-control
and relearning of adaptive responses to stress or for treatment of specific
psychopathology. Conversely, meditation is useful for providing a general
pattern of stress response less likely to trigger overlearned, maladaptive
responses. Meditation, he writes, may function as a stress therapy, facilitating
more rapid recovery from the psychological and physiological coping processes
mobilized in stress situations, allowing more alert anticipations to threat
cues, and more effective recovery.
Shapiro and Zifferblatt75
compared Zen meditation with Western behavioral self-control strategies.
In addition to relaxation and refocusing of attention, meditation involves
self-observation and desensitization to thoughts, fears, and worries.
Attending to the breath in a state of relaxed attention becomes a competing
response that desensitizes thoughts and images, and permits increased
receptivity to other thoughts, affects, or fantasies. (This refers to
the emergence into awareness of previously unconscious material, a topic
to which I will return below.)
Methods of behavioral self-change are also based on awareness: self-observation, self-monitoring, and analysis of the elements of the environment that are controlling one's behavior. Self-control techniques also use monitoring of thoughts, feelings, physiological reactions, and somatic complaints; examination of antecedents, initiating stimuli, and consequences of behaviors; and recognition of the frequency, duration, intensity of the behavior itself.
In Zen meditation on the breath, no attempt is made to plot data charts or employ systematic and written evaluation of data. In contrast, behavioral self-observation focuses on the specific problem area observed, the behavior to be changed or altered, and utilizes the labelling, evaluation, recording, and charting of data for the purpose of discrimination, and self-management. Shapiro and Zifferblatt do not seem to be aware that other forms of meditation such as Vipassana do employ discrimination, labelling, and recording of all contents and movements of consciousness.
Shapiro and Zifferblatt contend that meditation can promote behavioral self-control skills by teaching one to unstress and empty the mind of thoughts and images, and by increasing alertness to stress situations, thus facilitating performance of behavioral self-observation. Moreover, meditation gives practice in noting when attention wanders from a task, therefore placing the person in a better position to interrupt a maladaptive behavioral sequence. Zen meditation also does not involve cultivation of particular positive images or thoughts, as do active behavioral programming methods for stress and tension management, which use fear arousal as a discriminative stimulus for active relaxation, positive imagery, and self-instructions to cope with the stressful situation. Nevertheless, meditation does allow one to step back from fears and worries, and to observe them in a detached, relaxed way. Thus it alters subsequent self-observation by making the problem seem less intense and by giving a feeling of strength and control.
Meditation And The Unconscious: Psychoanalytic and Buddhist Perspectives
Meditation may indeed
have some usefulness in facilitating the self-observation and behavioral
changes sought in some forms of psychotherapy. But to view meditation
solely in this manner is to limit our understanding of its potential to
promote other important therapeutic goals, for example, the recognition
of unconscious conflicts that may be at the root of behavioral problems.
In this regard, let us recall Delmonte's observation that meditation can
also bring about "descendence" of consciousness, thus increasing
access to the unconscious. Goleman7 also noted that meditation allows
formerly painful material to surface. Thus there is some reason to think
that meditation might be compatible with psychodynamically oriented psychotherapies
focusing on uncovering and working through unconscious material.
Kutz et al.18 write
that meditation leads to greater cognitive flexibility, which allows one
to perceive connections between sets of psychological contents that were
hitherto separate and unrelated. In this manner, they contend, meditation
loosens defenses and allows the emergence of repressed material. Both
meditation and free association involve self-observation, although one
is usually discouraged from trying to interpret the meaning of free associations
during meditation. Meditation-related free associations are usually available
to memory and, like dreams, can be brought into therapy and understood
by examining their origin and meaning.
The view that meditation
may be a useful means of uncovering unconscious material is not shared
by some within the psychoanalytic tradition who view meditation as regressive
or pathological. Freud76 considered all forms of religious experiences
as attempts to return to the most primitive stages of ego development,
a "restoration of limitless narcissism" (p.19), used as a defense
against the fears of separateness. Alexander77 called meditation a "libidinal,
narcissistic turning of the urge for knowing inward, a sort of artificial
schizophrenia with complete withdrawal of libidinal interest from the
outside world" (p.130). Masson and Hanly78 contend that the urge
to get beyond the ego which is the goal of mysticism represents a regression
to an earlier, undifferentiated state of primary narcissism, often associated
with "an influx of megalomania," and characterized by "the
withdrawal of interest from the natural world." Lazarus79 noted psychiatric
problems precipitated by TM. He concluded that TM can be effective when
it is used properly by informed practioners, but that when used indiscriminately
it can lead to depression and depersonalization, heightened anxiety and
tension, agitation, restlessness, or feelings of failure or ineptitude
if the promised results do not occur. These findings suggest that the
very openness to the unconscious that meditation provides may also contribute
to the negative experiences sometimes found among meditators.
Several writers sympathetic
to both meditation and the psychoanalytic perspective have attempted to
clarify the psychoanalytic understanding of meditation. Shafii80 conceptualizes
meditation as a temporary and controlled regression to the preverbal level
or "somatosymbiotic phase" of the mother-child relationship,
a regression that rekindles unresolved issues from the developmental phase
in which the individual develops a sense of basic trust (i.e. experiences
and learns to rely on the continuity and sameness of outer providers and
of oneself). Frustrations of basic trust due to breaches in the child's
protective shielding give rise to "cumulative trauma," and the
consequent maladaptive defense mechanisms studied by psychoanalysis. Meditation,
Shafii says, returns the individual to the earliest fixation points and
permits reexperiencing of traumas of the separation-individuation phase
on a non-verbal level. Meditation, in Shafii's81 view, is a state of "active
passivity" and "creative quiescence" that has some similarities
with the "psychoanalytic situation": utilization of a special
body posture, limited cathexis of visual perception and increased cathexis
of internal perception, enhanced free association of thoughts and fantasies.
However, while psychoanalysis emphasizes verbalization of free associated
thoughts, feelings, and fantasies, in meditation one experiences and witnesses
Epstein and Lieff82 emphasize that meditation may be used in both adaptive and regressive ways. They stress that some meditators need a therapeutic framework in which to work out the unresolved unconscious issues which may emerge in the form of an upsurge of fantasies, daydreams, precognitve mental processes, or visual, auditory, or somatic aberrations during meditation. They also note that many of the phenomena that often occur during advanced stages of meditation-such as visions of bright lights, feelings of joy and rapture, tranquility, lucid percpetions, feelings of love and devotion, kundalini experiences, etc.-must not be interpreted simply as pathological symptoms. To do so would be an example of what Wilber83,84 has called the "pre-trans fallacy," that is
Wilber83,84 has delineated
the stages of development comprising what he believes is the full spectrum
of human development, from pre-personal to personal to transpersonal stages
of consciousness. He emphasizes that we must not equate transpersonal
experiences with the pre-egoic states with which they have some structual
similarities. According to Wilber84, meditation is not a way of digging
into lower and respressed structures of the submerged unconscious, but
rather a way of facilitating emergent growth and development of higher
structures of consciousness. Thus, meditation is a progression in transcendence
of the ego, not a simple regression in the service of the ego. At the
same time, derepression of unconscious material ("the shadow")
may occur in meditation, as meditation disrupts the exclusive identification
with the present level of development.
Engler10, who is both
a psychiatrist and a teacher of Buddhist meditation, has written perhaps
the most lucid assessment of the problems of using meditation in a clinical
setting, one which addresses many of the concerns raised by psychoanalytic
critics. In his view, both Buddhist psychology and psychoanalytic ego
psychology and object relations theory define the ego (what Buddhists
call "personality belief") as an internalized image that is
constructed out of experience with the object world and which appears
to have the qualities of consistency, sameness, and continuity. According
to object relations theory, the major cause of psychopathology is the
lack of a sense of self, caused by failures in establishing a cohesive,
integrated self, resulting in an inability to feel real. In contrast,
Buddhist psychology says that the deepest psychopathological problem is
the presence of a self, the "clinging to personal existence."
That is, identity and object constancy are seen by Buddhist psychology
as the root of mental suffering. Thus, whereas therapy devotes itself
to regrowing a sense of self, Buddhist meditation is focused upon seeing
through the illusory construction of the self. Engler questions whether
or not these two goals are mutually exclusive and suggests that one might
be a precursor of the other, concluding, "You have to be somebody
before you can be nobody" (p.17).
Engler has noted the
tendency for Western students of meditation to become fixated on a psychodynamic
level of experience-dominated by primary process thinking and unrealistic
fantasies, daydreams, imagery, memories, derepression of conflictual material,
incessant thinking and emotional lability; and their tendency to develop
strong mirroring and idealizing transferences to meditation teachers,
reflecting a need for acceptance by or merger with a source of idealized
strength and calmness, or characterized by oscillation between idealization
and devaluation. Engler attributes these problems to the inability to
develop adequate concentration, the tendency to become absorbed in contents
of awareness rather than the process of awareness; and the tendency to
confuse meditation with therapy and to analyze mental content instead
of observing it.
However, a more fundamental
problem is that meditation may be effective only for persons who have
achieved an adequate level of personality organization, and may be deleterious
for persons with personality disorders. In Engler's view, many Western
students of meditation have prior vulnerability and disturbances in the
sense of identity and self-esteem, as well as a tendency to try to use
Buddhism as a shortcut solution to age-appropriate developmental problems
of identity formation. Thus, such persons often misunderstand the Buddhist
"anatta" doctrine that there is no enduring self to justify
premature abandonment of essential psychosocial tasks. Engler believes
that such students have not achieved the level of personality development
necessary to practice meditation, and demonstrate structural deficit pathologies.
Many, in his view, are near the borderline level of development, characterized
by identity diffusion, failure of integration, split object-relations
units, fluid boundaries between self and world, feelings of inner emptiness
and of not having a self, and an inability to form or sustain stable,
satisfying relationships (p.30). Such persons are attracted to the anatta
doctrine because it explains, rationalizes, or legitimates a lack of self-integration.
Moreover, borderlines are often attracted to the ideal of enlightenment,
which is cathected as the acme of personal omnipotence and perfection.
This represents for them a purified state of invulnerable self-sufficiency
from which all defilements, fetters, and badness have been expelled, leading
in many cases to a feeling of being superior to others.
has little to say about the level of self-pathology with structural deficits
stemming from faulty early object-relations development because Buddhism
does not describe in detail the early stages in the development of the
self (p.34). Moreover, Engler believes that Buddhist meditation practices
will only be effective when the practitioner has a relatively intact,
coherent, and integrated sense of self, without which there is danger
that feelings of emptiness or not feeling inwardly cohesive or integrated
may be mistaken for sunyata (voidness) or selflessness.
Like therapy, vipassana
meditation is an uncovering technique, characterized by neutrality, removal
of censorship; observation and abstinence from gratification of wishes,
impulses, or desires, and discouragement of abreaction, catharsis, or
acting out; and a therapeutic split in the ego, in which one becomes a
witness to one's experience. All of these elements presuppose a normal,
neurotic level of functioning. In Engler's view, those with poorly defined
and weakly integrated representations of self and others cannot tolerate
uncovering techniques or the painful affects which emerge (p.36). Thus
insight techniques like vipassana run the risk of further fragmenting
an already vulnerable sense of self.
The vipassana guidelines
of attention to all thoughts, feelings, and sensations without selection
or discrimination create an unstructured situation intrapsychically. However,
the goal of treatment of borderline conditions is to build structure (not
to uncover repression), and thus to facilitate integration of contradictory
self-images, object images, and affects into a stable sense of self able
to maintain constant relationships with objects even in the face of disappointment,
frustration, and loss. Such treatment addresses the developmental deficits
deriving from early relationships-through a dyadic relationship, not through
introspective activities like meditation (p.38). Engler emphasizes that
mere self-observation of contradictory ego states is not enough to integrate
dissociated aspects of the self, objects, and affects. What is required
is confrontation and interpersonal exposure of split object- relations
units as they occur within the transference. Thus, Engler writes, "Meditation
is designed for a different type of problem and a different level of ego
Because a cohesive
and integrated self is necessary to practice uncovering techniques like
vipassana, meditation is not a viable or possible remedy for autistic,
psychopathic, schizophrenic, borderline or narcissistic conditions. Concentration
techniques, however, may be useful in lowering chronic stress and anxiety,
and for inducing greater internal locus of control. In Engler's view,
meditation and psychotherapy aimed at egoic strengthening are mutually
exclusive; for at a given time, one should either strive to attain a coherent
self, or to attain liberation from it (p.48). Engler warns that bypassing
the developmental tasks of identity formation and object constancy through
the misguided attempt to annihilate the ego has pathological consequences.
these potential drawbacks of meditation, Engler contends that Buddhism
has much to teach Western psychology, especially in its radical view of
the construction of stable and enduring constructs of self and others
as the source of suffering. From the Buddhist perspective, in contrast
to that of most Western psychologists, identity and object constancy represent
a point of fixation or arrest, and coherency of the self is a position
achieved in order to be transcended (p.47). Therefore what we consider
normality is, in the Buddhist view, a state of arrested development.
with Engler's contention that meditation is only an appropriate therapeutic
intervention for those already possessing a "fully developed personality."
Epstein concedes that some people attracted to meditation have pre-oedipal
issues and narcissistic pathologies, but argues that Buddhist meditation
may play an effective role in the resolution of infantile, narcissistic
conflicts. Mahler86 found that narcissistic residues persist throughout
the life-cycle, centering around memories of the blissful symbiotic union
of the child and mother-a time in which all needs were immediately satisfied
and the self was not yet differentiated. According to psychoanalytic theory,
the infant's experience of undifferentiated fusion with the mother gives
rise to two psychic structures: the ego ideal and the ideal ego. The ego
ideal is that toward which the ego strives, what it yearns to become,
and into which it desires to merge, as well as the ego's memory of the
perfection in which it was once contained. The ideal ego is an idealized
image the ego has of itself, especially centered around the belief in
the ego's solidity, permanence, and perfection; thus it is an image of
the ego's remembered state of perfection, a self-image distorted by idealization,
sustained by the ego's denial of its imperfections.
In borderline, narcissistic
and neurotic disorders, the ideal ego is strong and the ego ideal is weak.
Only with maturation does the ego ideal begin to eclipse the ideal ego.
Psychoanalytic theorists view meditation as a narcissistic attempt to
merge the ego and the ego ideal to reachieve fusion with a primary object.
Thus, in this view, meditation is believed to strengthen the ego ideal
and neglect the ideal ego.
Epstein contends that
Buddhist meditation can bring about restructuring of both the ego ideal
and the ideal ego. From a Buddhist perspective, the experiences of terror
that sometimes occur during meditation are the result of insight into
the impermanent, insubstantial, unsatisfactory nature of the self and
ordinary experience, leading to a sense of fragmentation, anxiety, and
fear. Western psychologists are concerned that these experiences could
unbalance those with inadequate personality structure. Buddhist psychologists,
however, emphasize that equilibrium can be maintained through the stabilizing
effects of concentration-which promotes unity of ego and ego ideal by
encouraging fixity of mind on a single object, allowing the ego to dissolve
into the object in bliss and contentment quite evocative of the infantile
narcisistic state. The experiences of terror sometimes resulting from
insight practices, however, do not satisfy the yearning for perfection
and do not evoke grandeur, elation, or omnipotence. Instead they challenge
the grasp of the ideal ego, exposing ego as groundless, impermanent, and
empty, and overcome the denials that support the wishful image of the
also postulates an ideal personality-the Arhat, who represents the fruition
of meditative practice, and the experience of nirvana, in which reality
is perceived without distortion. The promise of nirvana may thus speak
to a primitive yearning. In this manner, the ego ideal is strengthened
while the ideal ego is diminished, reversing the relative intensities
of these two that are thought to characterize immature personality organization.
Buddhism emphasizes the precise balance of concentration and insight,
a balance between an exalted, equilibrated, boundless state with one that
stresses knowledge of the insubstantiality of the self. Concentration
practices strengthen the ego ideal, leading to a sense of cohesion, stability,
and serenity thst can relieve feelings of emptiness or isolation. Yet
if the ego ideal is strengthened without insight into the nature of the
ideal ego, the experience of concentration may lead to a sense of self
importance or specialness that can increase the hold of the ideal ego.
Conversely, when the ideal ego is examined without adequate support from
the ego ideal one may become anxious and afraid, leading to morbid preoccupation
with emptiness, loss of enthusiasm for living, and an overly serious attitude
about oneself and one's spiritual calling. Another danger is that of superimposing
a new image of the ideal ego onto the preexisting one, "cloaking
the ideal ego in vestments of emptiness, egolessness, and non-attachment."
To understand the
therapeutic benefits of meditation, it is important to avoid the pre-trans
fallacy83,84 by distinguishing between experiences that may sound similar
yet have very different meanings in the therapeutic and meditative contexts,
respectively-for example, equating the states of emptiness that sometimes
arise in the course of meditation with the pathological forms of emptiness
described by psychoanalysis. Epstein87 writes that while the experience
of emptiness is a subject common to both Western and Buddhist psychologies,
these two traditions understand emptiness in fundamentally different ways.
Western psychologists have described pathological forms of emptiness characterized
by numbness, despair and incompleteness, identity diffusion, existential
meaninglessness, and depersonalized states in which one aspect of the
self is repudiated. As we have seen, some critics of meditation78,79 contend
that it may intensify these forms of emptiness. According to Epstein,
emptiness of these kinds are characterized as 1) a deficiency, an internalized
remnant of emotional sustenance not given in childhood; 2) a defense-a
more tolerable substitute for virulent rage or self-hatred; 3) a distortion
of the development of a sense of self, in which one is unable to integrate
diverse, conflicting self and object representations; and 4) a manifestation
of inner conflict over idealized aspirations of the self, resulting when
unconscious, idealized images of the self are not matched by actual experience,
producing a sense of unreality or estrangement.
In contrast, the emptiness
arising from Buddhist meditation is characterized by clarity, unimpededness,
and openness, an experience that destroys the idea of a substantially
existing, persisting, individual nature, as well as the substantiality
of "outer" phenomena. Western psychologists observe that succumbing
to the inevitable gap between actual and idealized experiences of the
self leads to disavowing the actual self through a numbing sense of hollowness
or unreality. Buddhist psychology focuses upon uncovering the distorting
idealizations that are at their root groundless, based on archaic, infantile
fantasy. Meditators confronted by a sense of emptiness must not mistake
this for Buddhist emptiness, Epstein writes, but must explore it and expose
their beliefs in its concrete nature. Epstein argues that meditation can
help the observing ego attend to whatever conflicting self or object images
that arise without clinging or condemnation, thereby decreasing pathological
emptiness. Thus Epstein concludes that while there are potential complications
of using meditation as a therapeutic method, it may have a role in transforming
narcissism, feelings of emptiness, and other forms of psychological suffering.
Moreover, according to Epstein, where absorption and insight balance precisely
and the voidness of the self is discerned, meditation can move beyond
all residues of the ego ideal and of narcissism into the experience of
The writings of Engler,
Wilber, and Epstein represent a new synthesis of the insights of psychoanalytic
theory and Buddhist psychology. Each of them suggests that the question
of whether meditation should be used in therapy requires a careful assessment
of the patient's character structure and the way in which this may be
affected by meditation.
Jungian Critique of Meditation
C.G. Jung88, while
considerably more open to religious or spiritual experiences than many
psychoanalytic theoreticians, consistently advised Westerners against
the use of Eastern meditation techniques. Westerners do not need more
control and more power over themselves and over nature, he writes; we
need to return to our own nature, not systems and methods to control or
repress the natural man. Before Westerners can safely practice Yoga or
meditation, Jung says, we must first know our own unconscious nature.
Jung believes that psychotherapy is a more appropriate form of introversion
for Westerners, one which permits the making conscious of unconscious
components of the self. No discipline ought to be imposed on the unconscious,
Jung emphasizes, for this would reinforce the "cramping" effect
of consciousness. Instead, everything must be done to help the unconscious
mind reach the conscious mind and free it of its rigidity. Thus Jung prescribes
active imagination, in which one switches off consciousness and allows
unconscious contents to unfold (pp.533-37).
Jung frequently cited
the danger of being overwhelmed by the unconscious through improper use
of Eastern psychotechnologies. He was particularly wary of the possibility
of being thrust into an uncontrollable psychotic decompensation, or of
becoming "inflated" as a result of identification with archetypal
material emerging from the unconscious. In his view89, these pitfalls
can be avoided by cultivating the ability to consciously understand this
unconscious material with a critical intelligence (pp.224, 232-34).
that spiritual disciplines have a fundamentally different purpose than
psychotherapy, being oriented toward "peaks," ascent toward
pneumatic experience, or timeless and impersonal spirit, and often encouraging
a turning away from nature, from community, from sleep and dreams, from
personal and ancestral history, and from polytheistic complexity. Psychotherapy,
in his view, is more a work of the soul than of the spirit, of depth as
opposed to height, of "vales" rather than peaks. Therapy is
"a digging in the ruins" of our personal history, fantasies,
and emotional complexities as revealed by imagery emerging from the unconscious.
Psychological and Spiritual Development
Jungian and psychoanalytic
critiques suggest that using meditation in the context of therapy is no
substitute for the exploration of psychological-emotional issues stemming
from the individual's personal history that are the focus of most psychotherapies.
Thus to be effective therapeutically, meditation would have to be pursued
with an attitude of psychological sensitivity that does not pursue expanded
states of consciousness as a form of "spiritual bypassing"91
of emotional, interpersonal, or intrapsychic conflicts.
Russell92 has attempted
to define a model for a balanced approach to psychological and spiritual
development. Russell searched the literature of Hindu Yoga and Theravadin,
Abhidharma, and Vajrayana Buddhism and found that while these systems
have great insight into conscious experiences and states of mind, they
do not demonstrate any understanding of the unconscious, emotional conflicts,
the existence of defensive mechanisms, or the operation of emotions like
anxiety, anger or guilt operating outside of awareness. Nor do they acknowledge
the effect of childhood trauma and parental treatment on the adult personality.
While Eastern psychologies may occasionally refer to unconscious contents,
they invariably view these as an intrusion and an obstacle to meditation
that must be removed-for example, through concentration techniques for
suppressing the unconscious.
Russell believes that
therapy and meditation differ significantly with respect to their aims,
their experiential areas, and their techniques. Meditation is not a method
to alleviate psychopathology, Russell states, and "in recent years
the expectation that meditation would be an effective psychotherapy has
largely been reversed." Meditation helps one achieve higher states
of consciousness, but is not focused on resolving emotional problems.
Therapy, however, aims at exploration of the unconscious, rather than
the higher states of consciousness sought in meditation. Welwood91 summed
up this view when he wrote that the aim of psychotherapy is self-integration,
while the aim of meditation is self-transcendence.
Meditation and therapy
are also concerned with quite different aspects of consciousness. Therapy
attempts to bring unconscious material into consciousness where it is
explored, analyzed, interpreted, or expresssed, while concentrative forms
of meditation seek a state of pure consciousness without content. In addition,
therapy generally uses uncovering techniques designed to elicit unconscious
material and bring it into awareness, where it is actively engaged through
free association, interpretation, and analysis of transference. Only in
cases of severe psychopathology (in which structure building and the development
of adequate personal defenses are necessary and desirable treatment goals)
does therapy employ covering techniques. Eastern spiritual disciplines
do not examine unconscious material closely, and often use covering methods
to eliminate obstacles to attainment of higher states of consciousness.
For example, Theravadin Buddhism uses precribed behaviors and concentration
meditation directed toward particular themes to reduce emotions and desires
that interfere with meditation. Concentrative meditation does not attend
to emerging unconscious material, but rather utilizes selective inattention
toward it. Moreover, although a technique like vipassana can be viewed
as an uncovering method in that unconscious material does arise, this
material is dealt with differently than in Western therapy. As Welwood91
noted, in meditation feelings and emotions are not viewed as having any
special importance, whereas in psychotherapy they are. In support of Russell's
argument, however, let us note that although vipassana does stress examination
of the nature of emotions, this is not the case in most forms of meditation.
Despite these observations,
Russell believes that because meditation doesn't necessarily block unconscious
material, there is not a complete opposition between meditation and therapy.
He argues that spirituality and psychology are both concerned with enlarging
the area of consciousness, either by bringing unconscious material into
consciousness, or by exploring higher states of consciousness. These two
approaches to expanded consciousness can be but are not necessariy explored
simultaneously. Increased access to unconscious material does not always
lead to an increase of higher states of consciousness. Alternatively,
higher states of consciousness could occur without increased awareness
of unconscious material. However it is also possible to increase awareness
in both directions concurrently. Moreover, solving personal problems through
awareness of unconscious material may improve meditation. Conversely,
meditation may sensitize a person to the inner world and thereby increase
openness to emergence of unconscious material in therapy. Russell concludes,
therefore, that therapy and meditation are not related in a linear sense,
as Wilber's and Engler's developmental models seem to suggest, but can
act synergistically to promote human growth. Thus Russell is in agreement
with Epstein that meditation can be used therapeutically both to promote
the personal healing customarily sought in therapy and the expansion of
consciousness sought in contemplative contexts.
and Altered States of Consciousness
As we have seen, meditation
involves voluntary redirection of attention, a training in the self-control
of attention that has some resemblance to other methods used in the behavioral
sciences. However, this retraining of attention may lead not only to a
physiological condition of deep relaxation, to increased skill in behavioral
self-observation, to deepened access to the unconscious, but also to non
ordinary states of consciousness. By alteration of the level and variety
of sensory input (either through sensory reduction or sensory overload)54,
the brain's information-processing capacities are affected, perception
is "deautomatized," and the "flow" experience arises,
characterized by perceptual expansion and sharpening.
In some cases, meditation
may lead to what Delmonte72 and Noble93 have called "transcendence,"
the experience of going beyond one's habitual perceptions or conceptions
of self and world, culminating in peak experiences such as samadhi, satori,
According to Noble83-summarizing
the views of James94-such powerful thrusts into higher consciousness are
characterized by ineffability (i.e., cannot be described accurately in
words); a "noetic" quality of heightened clarity and understanding
of reality; transiency; passivity; perception of the unity and interconnectedness
of existence; and positive affect. Noble writes that spiritual disciplines
like meditation have as their primary objective an openness to, and preparation
for, the experience of transcendence. While such experiences may cause
disruption of personal equilibrium in their aftermath (e.g., periods of
withdrawal, isolation, confusion, self-doubt), Noble also notes evidence
suggesting that, "Transcendence is significantly more productive
of psychological health than pathology."
Noble reviews studies showing that subjects who have had peak experiences are less authoritarian and dogmatic, and more assertive, imaginative, self-sufficient, and relaxed.95 Wuthnow96 showed that peak experiences were positively associated with "introspective, self-aware, and self-assured personalities" (p.73) and with a greater sense of meaningfulness and purposefulness in life. Other studies97 have shown that people having intense spiritual experiences are more likely to report a high level of psychological well-being. Noble also reviews evidence suggesting that
Deikman16 has also
noted that meditation produces major alterations in perception of personal
identity or definition of the self. He emphasizes the value of meditation
as a means of realizing the transiency of all mind content, and bringing
about a decreased preoccupation with one's personal problems and suffering
(p.142). Parry and Jones99 write that meditation facilitates the recognition
that "belief in the reality of a separate self, rather than enhancing
well-being, actually leads to suffering" (p.177). Walley100 writes
that meditation practice provides an antidote to "self-grasping"
and "the self-cherishing attitude" which, according to Buddhist
teachings, cloud the inherent purity, warmth, openess, and intelligence
that are the qualities of our natural state of mind (p.196).
These writers suggest
that meditation may offer a fundamentally different approach to mental
health than that used by most psychotherapists. Whereas therapy traditionally
focuses on the individual's problems and attempts to construct a more
healthy self-image, a meditatively informed therapy would promote realization
of the transiency and insubstantiality of all identity constructs as well
as the cultivation of equanimity, compassion, and friendliness toward
oneself and others5 (p.49). The extent to which such realizations of "no-self"
and consequent turning of attention away from the problems of the personal
self is in line with the goals of psychotherapy, and exactly how these
would affect the course and outcome of psychotherapy remains to be determined
through further empirical and phenomenological studies.
Meditation is a multidimensional
phenomenon that may be useful in a clinical setting in a variety of ways.
First, meditation is associated with states of physiological relaxation
that can be utilized to alleviate stress, anxiety, and other physical
symptoms. Secondly, meditation brings about cognitive shifts that can
be applied to behavioral self-observation and management, and to understanding
limiting or self-destructive cognitive patterns.
Meditation may also
permit deepened access to the unconscious. However, meditation by itself
may not be an effective means of reflecting upon and giving meaning to
the previously submerged material that may come to consciousness. Here
the interpretive schemas developed by psychoanalytic, Jungian, and other
psychodynamic theorists may prove more useful. Conversely, meditation
techniques like Vipassana focus attention on the manner in which unconscious
conflicts are being processed and recreated in the mind on a moment-to-moment
basis. Thus, vipassana offers the possibility of not just understanding
such conflicts conceptually, but of actually penetrating and gradually
dismantling them through meditative insight.
I have noted the importance
of assessing the developmental stage of the individual before prescribing
meditation as an adjunct to therapy, and in choosing an appropriate method.
While some, such as Engler, argue that meditation may intensify prior
deficits in self-structure in ways that may be deleterious, others, e.g.,
Epstein, contend that meditation can actually help resolve structural
personality disorders commonly treated by therapists.
Our discussion has
suggested that meditation may offer the possibility of development beyond
what most therapy can offer, but proceeds more effectively when certain
egoic issues such as self-esteem, livelihood, and intimacy and sexuality
have been at least to some extent resolved.10,16,84 Therapy may be a more
effective means of developing ego strength and exploring unconscious conflicts,
relationships issues, and so forth, especially when a preoccupation with
these concerns is a cause of sufficient anxiety that focused meditation
may not be possible.26,90 Here Bacher's23 contention that a sequential
approach to the use of meditation in therapy may be most fitting appears
to be supported.
I believe that meditation
can make a significant contribution to the deep transformation of personality
sought in psychotherapy. Nevertheless, Western therapists will need to
experiment to learn how these methods can be most useful to them. For
the therapeutic effects of different meditation techniques may vary greatly.
Concentration methods may allow the patient to feel inner balance, calm,
and a ground of being that transcends the continuous flux of thoughts
and emotions, and that inspires confidence. Vipassana meditation may promote
transformative insight into maladaptive patterns of mental and emotional
activity. But all of these methods have the capacity, as Deatherage suggested,
to help make the patient more self-reliant and less preoccupied with transference
to the therapist. Meditation can in some cases be useful in promoting
social adjustment, behavioral change, ego development, and so forth by
generating a mindfulness and inner peace that leads to greater efficiency
in work, openness to feelings, and satisfaction in daily life. Moreover,
meditation can enable the patient to view emotions with dispassion, acceptance,
and loving kindness, to transmute neurosis into a spiritual path, and
to taste an inner freedom "beyond any identity structure" (101).
I think that the use of meditation mainly makes sense in a therapy that
deliberately understands itself as contemplative or transpersonal; for
meditation's ultimate goal is to evoke the higher potentials of consciousness,
and experiences of a spaciousness beyond the cognitive structures and
constructs of the self that conventional psychotherapy seeks merely to
This essay has explored
research to date concerning the efficacy of introducing meditation into
the therapeutic setting. I have presented the views of proponents and
critics of the relaxation model of meditation and of theories describing
the cognitive changes brought about by meditation-for example, Deikman's
theory of the deautomatization of consciousness and Delmonte's view that
meditation may be utilized to bring about "ascendence," "descendence,"
and "transcendence." After summarizing psychoanalytic and Jungian
arguments against meditation, the writings of several transpersonal psychologists
have been cited to demonstrate the differences in how psychotherapy and
meditative disciplines conceptualize personal identity, work with unconscious
material, and view the experience of emptiness.
I conclude that the
question of whether meditation should be used in therapy can be answered
only by considering what therapeutic goals are being sought in a particular
instance and whether or not meditation can reasonably be expected to facilitate
achievement of those goals. Meditation may, in some cases, be compatible
with, and effective in promoting the aims of psychotherapy-for example,
cognitive and behavioral change, or access to the deep regions of the
personal unconscious. In other cases, it may be strongly contraindicated,
especially when the therapeutic goal is to strengthen ego boundaries,
release powerful emotions, or work through complex relational dynamics,
ends which may be more effectively reached through standard psychotherapeutic
methods than through meditation. Meditation may be of great value, however,
through its capacity to awaken altered states of consciousness that may
profoundly reorient an individual's identity, emotional attitude, and
sense of wellbeing and purpose in life.
would like to acknowledge the assistance of Donald Rothberg, Ph.D.
more information about the work of Greg Bogart, Ph.D.