Namo Tassa Bhagavato Arahato Sammâ-Sambuddhassa
On the fullmoon day of May, in the year 623 B.C., there was born in the district of Nepal an Indian Sakya Prince named Siddhartha Gotama, who was destined to be the greatest religious teacher in the world. Brought up in the lap of luxury, receiving an education befitting a prince, he married and had a son.
His contemplative nature and boundless compassion did not permit him to enjoy the fleeting material pleasures of a royal household. He knew no woe, but he felt a deep pity for sorrowing humanity. Amidst comfort and prosperity, he realized the universality of sorrow. The palace, with all its worldly amusements, was no longer a congenial place for the compassionate prince. The time was ripe for him to depart. Realizing the vanity of sensual enjoyments, in his twenty-ninth year, he renounced all worldly pleasures and donning the simple yellow garb of an ascetic, alone, penniless, wandered forth in search of Truth and Peace.
It was an unprecedented historic renunciation; for he renounced not in his old age but in the prime of manhood, not in poverty but in plenty. As it was the belief in the ancient days that no deliverance could be gained unless one leads a life of strict asceticism, he strenuously practiced all forms of severe austerities. "Adding vigil after vigil, and penance after penance," he made a superhuman effort for six long years.
His body was reduced to almost a skeleton. The more he tormented his body, the farther his goal receded from him. The painful, unsuccessful austerities which he strenuously practiced proved absolutely futile. He was now fully convinced, through personal experience, of the utter futility of self-mortification which weakened his body and resulted in lassitude of spirit.
this invaluable experience of his, he finally decided to follow an
independent course, avoiding the two extremes of self-indulgence and
self-mortification. The former retards one's spiritual progress, and
the latter weakens one's intellect. The new way which he himself discovered
was the Middle Path, Majjhima Patipada, which subsequently
became one of the salient characteristics of his teaching.
One happy morning,
while he was deeply absorbed in meditation, unaided and unguided by
any supernatural power and solely relying on his efforts and wisdom,
he eradicated all defilements, purified himself, and, realizing things
as they truly are, attained Enlightenment (Buddhahood) at the age
of 35. He was not born a Buddha, but
he became a Buddha by his own striving. As the perfect embodiment
of all the virtues he preached, endowed with deep wisdom commensurate
with his boundless compassion. He devoted the remainder of his precious
life to serve humanity both by example and precept, dominated by no
personal motive whatever.
After a very successful
ministry of 45 long years the Buddha, as every other human being,
succumbed to the inexorable law of change, and finally passed away
in his 80th year, exhorting his disciples to regard his doctrine as
The Buddha was
a human being. As a man he was born, as a man he lived, and as a man
his life came to an end. Though a human being, he became an extraordinary
man (acchariya manussa), but he never arrogated to himself divinity.
The Buddha laid stress on this important point and left no room whatever
for anyone to fall into the error of thinking that he was an immortal
divine being. Fortunately there is no deification in the case of the
Buddha. It should, however, be remarked that there was no Teacher,
"ever so godless as the Buddha, yet none so god-like."
The Buddha is
neither an incarnation of the Hindu God Vishnu, as is believed by
some, nor is he a savior who freely saves others by his personal salvation.
The Buddha exhorts his disciples to depend on themselves for their
deliverance, for both purity and defilement depend on oneself. Clarifying
his relationship with his followers and emphasizing the importance
of self-reliance and individual striving, the Buddha plainly states:
"You should exert yourselves, the Tathagatas
are only teachers." The
Buddhas point out the path, and it is left for us to follow that path
to obtain our purification.
"To depend on others for salvation is negative, but to depend on oneself is positive." Dependence on others means a surrender of one's effort. In exhorting his disciples to be self-dependent the Buddha says in the Parinibbana Sutta: "Be ye islands unto yourselves, be ye a refuge unto yourselves, seek not for refuge in others." These significant words are self-elevating. They reveal how vital is self-exertion to accomplish one's object and, how superficial and futile it is to seek redemption through benignant saviors and to crave for illusory happiness in an after life through the propitiation of imaginary Gods or by irresponsive prayers and meaningless sacrifices.
Buddha does not claim the monopoly of Buddhahood which, as a matter
of fact, is not the prerogative of any specially graced person. He
reached the highest possible state of perfection any person could
aspire to, and without the close-fist of a teacher he revealed the
only straight path that leads thereto. According to the Teaching of
the Buddha anybody may aspire to that supreme state of perfection
if he makes the necessary exertion. The Buddha does not condemn men
by calling them wretched sinners, but, on the contrary, he gladdens
them by saying that they are pure in heart at conception. In his opinion
the world is not wicked but is deluded by ignorance. Instead of disheartening
his followers and reserving that exalted state only to himself, he
encourages and induces them to emulate him, for Buddhahood is latent
in all. In one sense all are potential Buddhas.
One who aspires
to become a Buddha is called a Bodhisatta, which, literally, means
a wisdom-being. This Bodhisatta ideal is the most beautiful and the
most refined course of life that has ever been presented to this ego-centric
world, for what is nobler than a life of service and purity?
As a Man he attained
Buddhahood and proclaimed to the world the latent inconceivable possibilities
and the creative power of man. Instead of placing an unseen Almighty
God over man who arbitrarily controls the destinies of mankind, and
making him subservient to a supreme power, he raised the worth of
mankind. It was he who taught that man can gain his deliverance and
purification by his own exertion without depending on an external
God or mediating priests. It was he who taught the ego-centric world
the noble ideal of selfless service. It was he who revolted against
the degrading caste system and taught equality of mankind and gave
equal opportunities for all to distinguish themselves in every walk
He declared that
the gates of success and prosperity were open to all in every condition
of life, high or low, saint or criminal, who would care to turn a
new leaf and aspire to perfection.
caste, color or rank he established for both deserving men and women
a democratically constituted celibate Order. He did not force his
followers to be slaves either to his teachings or to himself but granted
complete freedom of thought.
He comforted the
bereaved by his consoling words. He ministered to the sick that were
deserted. He helped the poor that were neglected. He ennobled the
lives of the deluded, purified the corrupted lives of criminals. He
encouraged the feeble, united the divided, enlightened the ignorant,
clarified the mystic, guided the benighted, elevated the base, dignified
the noble. Both rich and poor, saints and criminals loved him alike.
Despotic and righteous kings, famous and obscure princes and nobles,
generous and stingy millionaires, haughty and humble scholars, destitute
paupers, down-trodden scavengers, wicked murderers, despised courtesans
-- all benefited by his words of wisdom and compassion.
His noble example
was a source of inspiration to all. His serene and peaceful countenance
was a soothing sight to the pious eyes. His message of peace and tolerance
was welcomed by all with indescribable joy and was of eternal benefit
to every one who had the fortune to hear and practice it.
Wherever his teachings
penetrated it left an indelible impression upon the character of the
respective peoples. The cultural advancement of all the Buddhist nations
was mainly due to his sublime teachings. In fact all Buddhist countries
like Ceylon, Burma, Thailand, Cambodia, Vietnam, Laos, Nepal, Tibet,
China, Mongolia, Korea, Japan, etc., grew up in the cradle of Buddhism.
Though more than 2500 years have elapsed since the passing away of
this greatest Teacher, yet his unique personality exerts a great influence
on all who come to know him.
His iron will,
profound wisdom, universal love, boundless compassion, selfless service,
historic renunciation, perfect purity, magnetic personality, exemplary
methods employed to propagate the teachings, and his final success
-- all these factors have compelled about one-fifth of the population
of the world today to hail the Buddha as their supreme Teacher.
Paying a glowing
tribute to the Buddha Sri Radhakrishnan states: "In Gautama the
Buddha we have a master-mind from the East second to none so far as
the influence on the thought and life of the human race is concerned,
and, sacred to all as the founder of a religious tradition whose hold
is hardly less wide and deep than any other. He belongs to the history
of the world's thought, to the general inheritance of all cultivated
men, for, judged by intellectual integrity, moral earnestness, and
spiritual insight, he is undoubtedly one of the greatest figures in
In The Three
Greatest Men in History H.G. Wells writes: "In the Buddha
you see clearly a man, simple, devout, lonely, battling for light
-- a vivid human personality, not a myth. He too gave a message to
mankind universal in character. Many of our best modern ideas are
in closest harmony with it. All the miseries and discontents are due,
he taught, to selfishness. Before a man can become serene he must
cease to live for his senses or himself. Then he merges into a great
being. Buddha in different language called men to self-forgetfulness
500 years before Christ. In some ways he is nearer to us and our needs.
He was more lucid upon our individual importance and service than
Christ and less ambiguous upon the question of personal immortality."
St. Hilaire remarks
"The perfect model of all the virtues he preaches, his life has
not a stain upon it."
A humble follower
of his would say -- "The more I know him, the more I love him;
the more I love him, the more I know him."